Econic Technologies is excited to announce the signing of a JDA to partner with SCG Chemicals, one of Thailand’s largest integrated petrochemical companies and a key industrial producer in the Asia-Pacific region. Econic Technologies will work together with SCG Chemicals to develop processes to manufacture novel CO2-based high molecular weight polymers using Econic’s catalyst technologies and to assess application opportunities. SCG Chemicals’ independent subsidiary and polymer research and development firm, Norner, will also play a key role in the development programme.
The joint venture is one of a number of global partnerships Econic Technologies is engaging in as it works towards realising its goal to create value from waste CO2 across the globe. By working with polymer manufacturers and suppliers to help them make their products using carbon dioxide, Econic Technologies creates the potential to transform the sustainability of products in a variety of industries from packaging to construction. Its partnership with SCG Chemicals opens another route to take its catalyst system developments into mainstream use, with a focus on high molecular weight CO2-based polymers as a new family of thermoplastics.
The joint venture will expand Econic Technologies’ global reach as it continues to grow its ever-developing catalyst portfolio. Rowena Sellens, CEO Econic Technologies, commented: “This opportunity to work with a partner that sees the potential beyond CO2 polyols is a fantastic step forward in expanding the breadth of the applications possible, as well as showcasing the relevance of our catalyst technologies as we move towards commercialisation on a global scale.”
For SCG Chemicals, the opportunity will enable the company to develop new, more sustainable technologies. Dr Suracha Udomsak, Technology Business, Group Head, SCG Chemicals, commented: “This is an exciting milestone for us, allowing SCG Chemicals to collaborate with experts to create innovation that could offer a better living standard to society. This collaboration is an example of technological development that will create impact on both higher material performance and sustainability aspects.”
For further information, please contact:
Alex Kane, Farrer Kane: +44 (0) 20 7415 7154 / firstname.lastname@example.org
Max Jewell, Farrer Kane: +44 (0) 20 7415 7154 / email@example.com
Author, Anthea Blackburn
Enhancing Healthcare using Polyurethane 07 04 2017
Just as we can find polyurethane in our everyday lives, so too can we find it throughout many of the medical procedures we probably don’t care to think too much about. Many of these applications in the medical realm are a result of the attractive properties of polyurethane, which can be attributed to the chemical structure of this polymer.
In the synthesis of polyurethane, a flexible polyol that makes up the polyurethane backbone, reacts with an isocyanate to generate the cross-linked polymer and the ‘soft’ segment of the material, as well as a low molecular weight hydroxyl- or amine-based chain extender that also reacts with the isocyanate to form, due to the additional presence of intramolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions, the ‘hard’ segment of the resultant polyurethane. The generation of this block co-polymer, whereby the soft and hard segments alternate, leads to a unique material that is elastomeric, as well as tough and tear resistant in nature.
These properties of polyurethane lead to its advantages in medical devices over other types of polymers, such as polyvinyl chloride or polyethylene, as the material is able to withstand continual bending and rubbing during its use, without becoming weakened or breaking.
Read on to learn more about some of the medical applications and recent advancements that rely on the benefits of polyurethane.
If we consider the use of polyurethane in medical applications, one of the first things that surely comes to mind is its compatibility with the body. Luckily, much work has been carried out in the fields of chemistry, engineering, and medicine to ensure that the materials used today have sufficient structural, chemical, and mechanical integrities, so we can rest assured that implants will maintain their shapes and desired functions, and will not be degraded by biological attack while in the body.
Historically, polyurethane can be commonly found in a range of medical tubings, for example in catheters and feeding tubes, as well as in surgical gloves and other medical garments, and in bedding. More recently, however, a more diverse range of applications are being realised.
One such application is a polyurethane-based heart valve reported by South African scientists, which offers the advantage, through 3D printing of a titanium frame and dip moulding to introduce the polyurethane valve, of being constructed specifically for each patient. This particular valve offers an exciting alternative treatment to the traditionally utilised biological valve, which degenerates fairly quickly in younger patients, or mechanical valve, which requires life-long anti-coagulation therapy – this development is thus ideal for younger patients in developing countries, such as those in sub-Saharan Africa, where rheumatic heart disease is unfortunately prevalent. Animal and further mechanical testing of the valve is currently underway, so keep an eye out for future progress in this field!
Patient comfort is an integral part of healthcare and treatment, and one particular polyurethane, thermoplastic polyurethane, offers a significant advantage over other plastics due to its ability to respond to heat due to the presence of transient cross-links between hard segments in the copolymer. The subsequent flexibility of the polyurethane imparted by this property allows for the material to act more as a rubber than a plastic, and adapt to movement in the patient’s body, which makes it much less cumbersome and annoying for the patient.
As such, these thermoplastic polyurethanes have a range of applications in a variety of tubings, oxygen masks, and wound dressings, as well as in a range of intravenous and intra-aortic balloon catheters, all of which are subject to much motion, and which patients appreciate for their flexibility.
When we think of polyurethane foams, their incorporation into medical devices may not be the first thing that comes to mind. Their rigid structure as a result of extensive cross-linking between the hard and soft segments of the co-polymer, is a bonus when support and inflexibility are required, however.
One such example of a rigid support comes in the form of a suture alternative, known as the Zip, which uses an adjustable ladder-type structure to close evenly an incision in places of stitches or staples. The polyurethane the Zip is made of facilitates the dynamic nature and conformability of the device, so the precision is also protected from the forces of patient movement, which aids in healing and recovery, and, perhaps most importantly for patients, also minimises scarring and track marks left by more traditional methods, so also offers cosmetic benefits.
For those who have suffered the ill-fate of broken bones and wearing a cast, the hassles of showering, the perpetual and unreachable itch, and the general discomfort can be appreciated. Luckily for any of our future breaks, a new company, Cast21, hailing from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has developed a means of addressing these issues. The cast, while still maintaining the rigidity required to repair a broken bone, is also hollow (so no itching!) and waterproof (showerproof!). To achieve this remarkable feat, the cast is based around a flexible network of silicon tubes into which the two components of polyurethane are injected, react, harden, and form a rigid foam exoskeleton that distributes force evenly across the limb in need of repair. Simple!
Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the house, not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse. The stockings were hung by the chimney with care, in hope that St Nicholas soon would be there.
Many of us will be halfway through our advent calendars by now. Don’t worry though, this isn’t where we tell you the chocolate is made from polyurethane. Rather, the moulds used to shape and store the chocolates are made from polycarbonate. Typically, low molecular weight polycarbonate is used which is durable and flexible enough to pass its shape onto the chocolate, but also allow you to free the chocolate from its casing to enjoy each day.
With a little old driver, so lively and quick, I knew in a moment it must be St Nick. More rapid than eagles his coursers they came, and he whistled, and shouted, and called them by name! “Now, Dasher! now, Dancer! now, Prancer and Vixen! On, Comet! On, Cupid! on, Donner and Blitzen! To the top of the porch! to the top of the wall! Now dash away! Dash away! Dash away all!”
The impending end of our advent calendars can then mean only one thing – Santa’s visit. With all of the families that Santa visits on Christmas Eve, he surely relies heavily on polyurethane to aid him in the vast distances and climes he will travel through. To reduce friction and make the journey a little easier on his reindeer, his sleigh will most likely be coated in polyurethane. To keep him warm, both at the North Pole and while he’s flying through the night skies, he probably wears boots made from polyurethane incorporated into the shoe’s upper. The hard thermoplastic polyurethane in the soles of his boots are also probably really useful when he needs to clamber over snowy and slippery roofs. And just to be safe, we suggest that he takes an umbrella coated in waterproofing polyurethane in case it’s raining out!
Not all of us, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere, are lucky enough to celebrate a white Christmas. With the help of chemistry though, we can guarantee snow for all this Christmas, not necessarily falling from the sky however. As a more permanent solution, porous polyurethane foam is often coated on artificial Christmas trees to mimic a snow-clad forest tree. Alternatively, a more hands-on snow can be made at home using sodium polyacrylate, a very absorbent polymer, which, when mixed with water, expands in size by many orders of magnitude, and, due to the endothermic nature of water uptake, becomes cold.
He spoke not a word, but went straight to his work, and filled all the stockings, then turned with a jerk. And laying his finger aside of his nose, and giving a nod, up the chimney he rose!
There is nothing more magical than waking up to a Christmas tree twinkling with lights, sparkling with baubles, and festively surrounded by gifts, a sight that would be lacking, if not for various forms of polyurethane and polycarbonate. Artificial Christmas trees, in combination with polyvinyl chloride or polyethylene fir leaves, comprise a polyurethane foam-based trunk. The decorations and baubles that adorn our trees are typically coated with polyurethane for longevity and shininess, while the lights that trim the tree are encased in a polycarbonate shell. Polyurethane is also prevalent in the gifts under the tree – from the flexible polyurethane foam that protects our packaged gifts, to the rigid polyurethane plastic that makes up our gifts.
At the end of the festivities, rest assured that you can relax in the comfort of your polyurethane foam couch cushions and memory foam mattress, while listening to Christmas songs or watching films on polycarbonate CDs and DVDs. (Polymeric) perfection.
He sprang to his sleigh, to his team gave a whistle, and away they all flew like the down of a thistle. But I heard him exclaim, ‘ere he drove out of sight, “Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good-night! – Clement Clarke Moore
The 2016 Rio Paralympic Games are now in full swing, with medals being won, records being broken, and a viewers from around the world being inspired. Plastics and polymers have had a huge influence upon these games, which may come as a surprise to you (even the medal ribbons are 50% recycled plastic bottles this year!). Technological and scientific advances are imperative to the continued growth and expansion of the paralympics, and all athletic endeavours. Carry on reading to find out some more about the technology on show at this year’s Games.
Let’s kick off, or more aptly, tip off, with wheelchair basketball. Although the majority of chairs used currently are made from welded titanium, there has been a significant increase in the belief that carbon fibre-reinforced polymers, typically polyepoxide-based, in fact offer the attributes desirable for a more successful wheelchair, typically leading to the chair being lightweight and manoeuvrable, but also able to withstand impact. Carbon fibre-reinforced polymers are more commonly used in running blades, a mainstay of the modern paralympic games, as they offer the best combination of strength and weight. Although this technology is not the norm within more chair-based sports, there are athletes who will be using these chairs, so it’s down to the action on the court for a preview of what may be more widespread in the future for wheelchair basketball.
There have also been developments on the chairs used throughout the games off the basketball court, whereby British athletes have been able to achieve a 20% increase in acceleration thanks to work between UK Sport and BAE Systems (more commonly associated with the aerospace industry). This increase in speed has been made possible for Team GB’s racing chairs through the development of a new, lighter composite-based wheel, that is also three times more rigid than previous wheels. This rigidity allows for a reduction in a force known as ‘toe-in’, and prevents the wheel from bending inwards as the athletes propel themselves forwards, thereby reducing the amount of friction between the athlete and the track. As we know, a margin of 20% is a big deal in athletic competition, so this development will have a huge impact on athletes’ hunt for gold.
It isn’t only Team GB who have put time into developing their wheelchairs, the US team have teamed up with BMW to create ‘the world’s fastest wheelchair’. The chair does not resemble a traditional chair, with its low, long, and triangular body produced from carbon fibre by BMW’s California-based design firm Designworks. Each chair is also personalised to fit each individual athlete to allow their performance to be optimised even further.These developments will lead to some intense competition this year, which may not only be between the athletes, but also between the companies behind the chairs too.
Taking a dip in the waters of Brazil may conjure up images of golden beaches and lapping shore lines, and although that may be true, the athletes at the Paralympics will be competing in somewhat less relaxing circumstances. Events such as the paracanoe and rowing are in full effect, and the technology involved is proving to hold an influence on the speed, agility and success of the athletes. The shape, style and flexibility of canoes and kayaks is heavily influenced by innovations in plastics technology, with these materials able to offer the development of more lightweight apparatus without sacrifice of their rigidity.
Canoe events were introduced into the Paralympics for the first time this year, with six medal events added. It is no surprise that racing canoes are no longer made of wood or bark, but instead most are now constructed from the polymer Kevlar, which allows for an increase in speed and agility due to the lightweight nature of the material.
As well as the canoes and kayaks themselves, plastics are incorporated into the events at the Lagoa Stadium in Rio, with high-density polyurethane blocks used to form obstacles. These objects take the form of artificial rocks and are bolted together to the bottom of the water channel in order to constrict the water flow with the aim of replicating a natural whitewater feature.
The use of polyurethane swimsuits has caused much controversy over the years at the Olympic and Paralympic Games, with the use of whole-body suits being banned since 2010 and the the 2012 London Games. Of course, athletes have long sourced any advantages in competition, such as removing every follicle of hair from their bodies, but the banned suits are an example of technology advancement gone too far (in the eyes of the Olympic governing bodies, that is). The suits allowed for swimmers to become far more buoyant as a result of the extremely thin material trapping small pockets of air. Maybe there is room for technological development in this event, but even without these suits, paralympians have already been posting some impressive times in the pool this year.
The world’s first 3D-printed prosthesis will be on show at this year’s Games, a milestone in prosthetic technology. German cyclist Denise Schindler, with the help of software company Autodesk, will be using the fully 3D-printed polycarbonate-based prosthesis as she competes for gold in Rio. A significant advantage of using such technology is the pace at which the limb can be produced using a 3D printer, rather than by hand as standard athletic prosthetic limbs are generally produced. This increased speed of production allows for any necessary changes to be made to the design with little disruption, meaning the prosthesis can evolve at a greater pace during the production process. Additionally, as the prosthesis is prepared from an electronic blueprint obtained from 3D scanning of the athlete, the joint prepared can provide a much better fit than can be achieved through the useful method of plaster casting. The team have been printing and testing a range of printed prostheses based on polycarbonate split into two parts, and the development will continue right until the start of the Games, with the aim to have the most aerodynamic version possible.
The hope is that this technology will open the door for these new types of prosthetic limbs to become available not only to elite athletes, but also to be more readily accessible to a much larger range of people who have suffered the loss of a limb. Schindler herself has said that a huge goal of hers is to ‘open up the sports world for the average amputated person’. Developments such as this could not only help to make the dreams of those inspired to compete at the Paralympics a closer reality, but also to assist those using prostheses in their everyday lives.
Polyurethane, it’s everywhere and maybe you didn’t even realise. Much of our everyday life is improved by the presence of polyurethane. Our houses are kept warmer, our furniture made comfier, and our appliances kept shinier. Since its development in 1937, polyurethane has become an integral part of all aspects of our lives, and with the ongoing scientific advances in the technology behind this polymer, it will undoubtedly only become more prevalent. Continue reading to learn about the different types of polyurethane that can be found throughout your home.
Memory foam mattress: Those who sleep well at night sleep on a memory foam mattress, which was initially developed by NASA for use in aircraft cushions. This polyurethane foam is viscous, highly dense, and has an open cell structure, all of which allow the mattress to react to the body’s weight and temperature to mould, via loss of air in the foam, to the now very relaxed, sleeper.
Spandex: As the superheroes amongst us will no doubt agree, the combination of fine threads of polyurethane and nylon, that is, spandex/Lycra, with its exceptional elasticity and strength was a wondrous development. This fabric is also used extensively by athletes in their sports and swim wear.
Footwear: One of the most important factors we look for in a new pair of shoes, other than cost, lifetime, and celebrity endorsement of course, is comfort. Polyurethane offers most (Kanye’s approval TBC) of these key factors in footwear selection – it is an abrasion-resistant and durable material, which is perfect for the soles of not only everyday shoes, but also more hard wearing and waterproof shoes used for sports or hiking.
Carpet underlays: Living in a house with many other people can cause you enough noise issues. The mystery of how one person getting out of bed can sound like a herd of elephants remains unsolved. The use of a flexible polyurethane foam underlay under carpet, however, can offer some respite from the stampedes with it’s ability to reduce ambient noise. These underlays can also significantly increase the lifetime of your carpet, whilst protecting it’s appearance and providing additional comfort and support to those in the zoo…oops, house.
Furniture: What better place is there to watch a film than curled up on a sofa? Provided it is soft and comfortable, of course. A flexible high density polyurethane foam with an open cell structure that is able to reversibly compress and expand, is ideal as the cushioning material in such sofas and seats, as it is durable, comfortable and supportive. Now surely all that’s needed is a polyurethane-based film to watch, Polyurethane-man? Polyurethanes of the Caribbean? Maybe not…
Electronics: We are all aware how fragile our phones, laptops, televisions and other electronic devices can be, and they would be even more so if not for non-foam polyurethanes, which have excellent dielectric and adhesive properties. In addition to its resistance to solvent, water and extreme temperatures, polyurethane is often used to encapsulate, seal, and insulate sensitive microelectronic components and circuit boards. Dropping your phone in the toilet is still not recommended, however.
Insulation: The importance of insulation can be seen throughout our houses, especially those of us living in colder climes, wherever a barrier to air, moisture, sound, and temperature (or all of the above) is required. The use of rigid polyurethane foams, that have closed cell structures and consequently air trapped inside the material, are therefore ideal for insulation in walls, ceilings, and window frames, and even in fridges and freezers, in order to reduce energy losses, and, perhaps more importantly, reduce household bills!
Metal coating: Contrary to popular belief, even the kitchen sink contains polyurethane. A slightly different application is used here, whereby a powder form of polyurethane is applied to metal surfaces by electrostatic spray, followed by curing at a high temperature to melt and flow the coating. This method creates a protective layer on the metal surface that has chemical and corrosive resistance, as well as colour and gloss retention. Perfect for keeping your kitchen spick and span.
Wood coating: For those of us who grew up with wooden floors (or still live with them!), we might remember the fun of sliding along the floor in socks…this is largely possible because of oil-based polyurethane coatings that provide a protective finish to surfaces, typically wooden, that are resistant to abrasion and solvents, wear better and for longer, and are easy to clean and maintain (which makes the grownups happy!).
Sports equipment: For the more adventurous amongst us, much sport equipment incorporates polyurethane, from the wheels of skateboards that require hardness and abrasion-resistance, to the protective resin used to coat surfboards, to the durable wheels used in roller coasters.
Imagine if all of this was possible, whilst also enabling the capture and storage of pesky waste CO2… check out how Econic can make this possible, or contact us for more information.
Why Professor Charlotte Williams won the 2015 WISE Tech Start-up Award 12 11 2015
Professor Charlotte K. Williams, Founder and Chief Scientific Officer, Econic Technologies and Professor of Chemistry, Imperial College London has shown innovation, creativity, technical skill, determination and drive in founding and leading the scientific teams at Econic Technologies.
She is a committed advocate and an internationally recognised expert in sustainable chemistry, particularly focussed on improving the environmental sustainability of polymers.
Charlotte founded Econic Technologies in 2011 to commercialise her inventions of catalysts which transform carbon dioxide to polymers. The catalysts allow carbon dioxide to be used as a raw material in polymer production, allowing manufacturers to make a new generation of everyday plastics which are more profitable and more environmentally sustainable. There is a triple win in green-house gas reductions, due to both carbon dioxide usage and avoided petrochemicals. Replacing petrochemicals with carbon dioxide also drives the economics and profitability, as does the compatibility with existing plant and infrastructure. Charlotte has led, inspired and developed the scientific teams at Econic Technologies, and is also a key member of the management team and board; the company has raised more than £8M in funding and currently has 15 employees.
Charlotte is also Professor of Catalysis and Polymer Chemistry at Imperial College, London, where she leads a large research-team of postgraduate, undergraduate and postdoctoral researchers. She is passionate about encouraging and mentoring her team, and other researchers, to pursue careers in science and technology, including to develop their own ideas and inventions into viable businesses.
Kelsey Lynn Skinner, Director of Technology Ventures at Imperial Innovations, says: “Charlotte’s ability to explain complex science and to enthuse others has been very important to building the business to its current success.”
The judges felt that the winner’s innovation of creating catalysts that transform carbon dioxide is simple but has the capacity to make a massive impact on the world as well as commercial impact on industry. A role model with passion, she is accomplished and continues to innovate.